With the loss of the teeth we face with the problems with the bone, with time it gets thiner. The blood vessels that surround the bone and keep it alive are stimulated by blood circulation in the maxilla area and make pressure on the tooth. With the disappearance of the tooth and the root, the stimulus and the blood supply to the bone also disappears and consequently the bone. Bone regeneration is often essential before any further treatment.
Bone augmentation is the process of rebuilding or replacing bone in the jaw using bone or bone-like materials in order to support dental implants.The bone augmentation can be performed at the same time as the implant operation and before the implants.
The autologous bone graft
The autologous bone is taken from the intra-oral area (chin or mandible), or from extra-oral areas (hip, cranial theca). In this case, the patient must go under the general anesthesia, so hospitalization is necessary.
The autologous bone graft consists in the removal of bone from the patient and in the subsequent grafting in the deficient bone zone where the implant will be placed.
The heterologous bone graft
The posterior area of the upper jaw (molar zone) is oftenly very thin and does not obtain the stability for an implant. The reason is the presence of the maxillary sinuses which are hollow areas. Heterologous bone (ie bone not taken from the patient) is used in past few years. The most used is the deproteinized bovine bone, which, once inserted, fills the space between the implant and the post extraction alveolus. The heterologous bone is also used when we place post-extraction implants.